Leaf tissue may die beneath the spots and the leaves may yellow and drop prematurely. 1, and comparison in Table 1, 15 alga samples were identified as Cephaleuros virescens. Fruit Canker (Restalotia psidii Pat.) syringae; P. cichorii. ALGAL DISEASE Algal stem blotch Cephaleuros virescens Kunze ex Fries BACTERIAL DISEASES Bacterial canker Pseudomonas syringae van Hall Bacterial leaf scorch Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. Algal leaf and fruit spot The alga causes spots on leaves and fruits and thus reduces the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Algal leaf spot is a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Andersen RA (ed) (2005) Algal culturing techniques, Elsvier Academic Press, London, 578 p, Bischoff HW, Bold HC (1963) Phycological studies. Furthermore, C. virescens has been documented to cause algal leaf spot on … Phycologia 48(4):213–236, Suto Y, Ganesan EK, West JA (2014) Comparative observation on Cephaleuros parasiticus and C. virescens (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from India. Scabs were formed on heavily infected fruits. University of Texas Publication. The disease is called algal leaf spot, algal fruit spot, and green scurf; Cephaleuros infections on tea and coffee plants have been called “red rust.” These are aerophilic, filamentous green algae. Copper Oxychloride is for the control of fungal and bacterial diseases in fruit and vegetable crops, citrus, stone fruit, pome fruit… Read More. Dept of Horticultural Science | 2721 Founders Drive | Raleigh, NC 27695 | Phone: (919) 515-1240 Abstract Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) The morphology of the algae (thallus, filamentous cells, sporangiophore, sporangia, gametangia and zoospore) were examined and found to consistently match the species Cephaleuros virescens. Bryopsis plumose represents the lack of similarity outside this group. Google Scholar, Hibbet DS (1996) Phylogenetic evidence for horizontal transmission of group I introns in the nuclear ribosomal DNA of mushroom-forming fungi. This is the first report of algal leaf disease on M. indica in Cameroon. Some Soil Algae from Enhanted Rock and Related Algal Species. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize Cephaleuros species present on Para rubber in Thailand. ALGAL LEAF SPOT. The disease does not cause severe economic loss. Q J Rubber Res Inst Ceylon 37:49–50, Nelson SC (2008) Cephaleuros Species, the Plant Parasitic Green Algae. The PCR performed in 50 μl reaction volume containing 10 pmol of each primer, 2x DreamTaq Green PCR Master Mix (Thermo Scientific), and 50 ng of template DNA. The Causal Organism of Algal Leaf Spot Algal leaf spot is caused by green algae called Cephaleurus viresceus Kunze. Recently, Cephaleuros solutus was reported causing a leaf spot on durian in Thailand (Pitaloka et al. An initial denaturation step for 3 min at 95 °C was followed by 35 cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 95 °C, annealing for 30 s at 50 °C, and extension for 1 min at 72 °C, with a final extension step of 10 min at 72 °C. Although aerophilic and ter-restrial, they require a film of water to complete their life cycles. Leaf tissues are colonized beneath the epidermis by algal filaments, but host cells are not penetrated (Chapman and Henk 1985). Phaeosphaerella mangiferae Phoma sorghina Pseudocercospora mali Pseudocercospora subsessilis Septoria sp. This nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank with accession number (AB984776) and compared to known Cephaleuros and other algal genus on the NCBI (the National Center for Biotechnology Information) databases. Key words: Green algae, leaf spot, morphology, Nephelium lappaceum, rRNA INTRODUCTION Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Linn.) Algal thalii were selected from fresh leaves and initially observed under a stereomicroscope. Anthracnose is a general word used to describe different varieties of diseases that cause damaging effects on vegetables, fruits, and trees. Bootstrap values are shown on the branches and the GenBank accession number are shown in parentheses. ... Related: Algal Leaf Spot Of Guava: Symptoms And Management. Bacterial causal agent: Pseudomonas syringae pv. However, in summer when the alga is reproducing, the spots take on a velvety, red-brown appearanc… Furthermore, C. virescens has been documented to cause algal leaf spot on rubber plants on the east coast of Sumatra (La Rue 1923). PubMed Google Scholar. Morphological characteristics of the Cephaleuros spp. - 159.65.218.200. Cephaleuros virescens, the cause of an algal leaf spot on Para rubber in Thailand. Parasitic algae are a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Like other plants, Para rubber is attacked by several pathogens and one of the most frequently found is a leaf spot caused by a phytoparasitic algae. Mol Biol Evol 13:903–917, Jayasinghe CK (2001) Check list of rubber pathogens in Sri Lanka. During 2014–2015, algal spot disease was noticed in the guava orchards of northern and southern Thailand. To confirm the result from morphological characteristics, thallus of Cephaleuros was cultured on Bold’s basal medium (Bischoff and Bold 1963; Andersen 2005) and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR amplification. It is a fungus disease that attacks developing shoots and expanding leaves. Academic, San Diego, pp 315–322. Based on the leaf symptom and morphological characteristics of the algae as described in Fig. Hendersonia rot Hendersonia creberrima. Gray leaf spot Pestalotiopsis mangiferae = Pestalotia mangiferae. The record of Cephaleuros solutus on durian was the first record of Cephaleuros sp. Anurag Sunpapao. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. The spots are initially circular, slightly elevated and later coanesce to form irregular spots. an important fruit of subtropical countries is affected by about 177 pathogens of which, 167 are fungal, 3 bacterial, 3 algal, 3 nematodes and one epiphyte. During September 2015, we observed orange to dark-brown algal leaf spots on leaves of Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (sapodilla, lamoot) in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. IV. 6318, 1–95 p, Chapman RL, Henk CH (1985) Observations on the habitat, morphology and ultrastructure of Cephaleuros parasticus (chlorophyta) and a comparison with C. virescens. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Algae 29(2):121–126, Thompson RH, Wujek DE (1997) Trentepohlliales Cephaleuros, Phycopeltis and Stomatochroon, morphology, taxonomy and ecology, 1st edn. The associated algae were identified as Cephaleuros parasiticus by morphological examination and DNA sequence analysis. National Science Foundation, Colombo, 47 p, La Rue CD (1923) Two unreport parasite of Hevea brasiliensis. Macrophoma rot Macrophoma mangiferae Pitaloka, M.K., Petcharat, V., Arikit, S. et al. subsp. Like other plants, Para rubber is attacked by several pathogens and one of the most frequently found is a leaf spot caused by a phytoparasitic algae. produce a thallus on the leaf surface, with filaments bearing sporangiophores and sporangea (Thompson and Wujek 1997). The black spot symptoms start as small black spots on the upper surface of the leaves. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand. Cite this article. Fifteen specimens of algal leaf spot from Para rubber leaves were collected from Songkhla, Trang and Phattalung provinces, southern Thailand. The morphology of the algae (thallus, filamentous cells, sporangiophore, sporangia, gametangia and zoospore) were examined and found to consistently match the species Cephaleuros virescens. Macrophoma sp. It has been previously reported that algal leaf spot disease on rubber plants in Sri Lanka is caused by Cephaleuros parasiticus (Karst) (Munasinghe 1961; Jayasinghe 2001). In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). predominantly occur in tropical and subtropical regions. Various genotypes of M. rosae, i.e isolates that infect a specific cultivar or group of cultivars, are currently present. Bacterial leaf spot Burkholderia andropogonis (Smith) Gillis et al. Wilt is the most important disease of guava. Australasian Plant Disease Notes A portion of 18S rDNA was amplified by PNS1 (Hibbet 1996) and NS8 (White et al. Green algae in the genus Cephaleuros are known to be parasitic on several woody plants. Algal leaf spot is a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm, humid climates or in greenhouses. Enfield Publishing and Distribution, United States of America, p 149, White TJ, Bruns TD, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. Signs of the disease are often found on the leaf surface in the form of burnt-orange to brown spots (Nelson 2008). Leaf Australasian Plant Dis. Causal Organism of Guava Stem Borer. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-015-0158-1. Algal leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance. 1990) primer pair. Plant Dis- PD-43, Pitaloka MK, Petcharat V, Sunpapao A (2014) Cephaleuros solutus Karsten, as a causal agent of durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) algal leaf spot disease in Thailand. on Para rubber were compared to descriptions described in the monograph by Thompson and Wujek (1997). They vary in color from a crusty gray-green to greenish brown. Site Feedback @2020 Plant Pathology Department University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. This is also a fungal disease that affects the fruit and growth … Algal leaf spot is most visible when it affects leaves, but it also regularly affects twigs and branches and sometimes fruit. A PCR product band about 700 bases was observed from Cephaleuros sample. The algae caused circular orange to dark brown lesions on both leaf surfaces. Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. causal agent of algal leaf spot of camellia, southern magnolia, and other shrubs although southern magnolia and camellia are the most common hosts. Based on the symptoms observed and microscopic morphological studies, the recovered pathogen was identified as Cephaleuros virescens . The partial 18S rDNA gene region then was bidirectionally sequenced at the Scientific Equipment Center Prince of Songkla Unversity, Songkhla, Thailand. multiplex Schaad et al. Leaf spot Curvularia lunata Leptosphaeria sp. Neighbor joining tree showing the genetic relationships of Thai Cephaleuros (PSU-PR01) was in the same clade with Cephaleuros genus, while well separated from the other genus (Fig. It has been previously reported that algal leaf spot disease on rubber plants in Sri Lanka is caused by Cephaleuros parasiticus (Karst) (Munasinghe 1961; Jayasinghe 2001 ). Black spot is the most serious disease on roses in Florida. The genus Cephaleuros is a member of the ... 9.2 Causal organism This leaf spot is caused by Pestalotia jodhpurensis. Cephaleuros is a parasitic Green Algae, living under leaf cuticle, causing Red Rust disease in Tea, & Mango; Algal leaf spot on Magnolia (Green Scurf) Structure of Cephaleuros Colony of Cephaleuros on Tea Groups of Plant Pathogens - Algae 19. 2014). Correspondence to The spots are generally 1/2 inch or less in diameter although they may coalesce to form larger colonies. Stem borer of guava is one of the group of insect pests that bore or feeds on the stem of guava plant and cause damage or reduce the growth rate and productivity of guava plant. J Phycol 21:513–522, Article  Notes 10, 4 (2015). Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. Verticillium lecanii. View. Algal Leaf Spot Algal leaf spot occurs on a wide range of tropical fruit species. In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).The algae caused circular orange to dark brown lesions on both leaf surfaces. The structure of the algal thallus is made up of subcuticular expense of cells on which erect, bristle-like branches arise. The causal organism is a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons, and viburnums. On leaves of camellia and southern magnolia, the lichen Strigula appears as numerous small gray-white crusty spots (figure 4), which later turn yellow and are shed. Para rubber trees need long periods of high rainfall to produce a high yield of latex and are therefore cultivated in southern Thailand where suitable weather occurs. Cephaleuros spp. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as litchi, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. Green algae in the genus Cephaleuros are known to be parasitic on several woody plants. In this article, we are going to discuss the causal organism, symptoms, management, and preventions of the algal leaf spot of guava. Paper from the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, 69–71, Munasinghe HL (1961) Algal spot of Hevea leaves in Ceylon. Part of Springer Nature. A 94 % sequence identity confirmed it to be a member of the Cephaleuros group. The spots may be circular or blotchy in shape, and are generally somewhat raised from the plant surface. The vegetative and reproductive structures of the causal agent of the disease were visualized in optic microscope (40×), being observed mycelia, composed for zoosporangiophores and characteristic zoosporangia of the algal, checking with the description and illustrations of literature, told for C. virescens Kunze. 2). The edges of the spots may be wavy or feathered. is a large- sized, evergreen tree belonging to … Growth of the algae is mostly superficial and appears as raised blotches or patches ranging in inch on leaves.Leaf spots appear initially as a grayish green,brown or orange­like color Spots develop a velvety, cushion­like appearance on the plant surface as a result of the algal colony. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-015-0158-1, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-015-0158-1, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the Cephaleuros 18S rRNA using BLAST search revealed that our partial sequence was 707 bases long. The disease is characterized by initial green coloured patches, as and when disease advances the organism turns red rusty spots on the leaves and young twig. The length and width of sporangiophores and sporangia were 237.62 - 4645.85 × 15.5 μm and 20.6 - 41.32 × 20.6 μm, respectively. The symptoms on leaf tissues were then photographed. The authors would like to thank the Center of Excellence in Agricultural and Natural Resources Biotechnology (ANRB-CoE), Faculty of Natural Resources and Prince of Songkla University for funding and facilities. Specimens of algae have also been deposited at the Culture Collection of the Pest Management Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, for further studies. But, before we dive in, here is brief guide about this disease of guava: Algal leaf spot as the name implies is a disease that affects the growth of guava by reducing the … Algal leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance. The presence of the pathogen on the leaf reduces the photosynthetic leaf area thereby affecting the growth of the tree. In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Leaf blight Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Some hosts may also have diseased twigs and branches that are girdled and stunted with reddish brown fruiting bodies. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols, a guide to methods and applications. Show abstract. Groups of Plant Pathogens – Algae (contd…) Department of Pest Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand, Mutiara K. Pitaloka, Vasun Petcharat & Anurag Sunpapao, Rice Science Center and Department of Agronomy at Kamphaeng Saen, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, 73140, Thailand, You can also search for this author in This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand. Algal leaf spot is a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. Cephaleuros spp. Symptoms of the disease occurred on the leaves and fruit. volume 10, Article number: 4 (2015) Leaf tissues with algal thalii were then cross-sectioned and the sporangiophore, sporangia, gamete and zoospore observed. causing disease in Thailand. Algal leaf spot is characterized by grayish, green, brown or orange cushion-like blotches on the leaf surface. Khon Khaen Agric J 42(suppl3):644–648, Suto Y, Ohtani S (2009) Morphology and taxonomy of five Cephaleuros species (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from Japan, including three new species. © Barmac Pty Ltd 2021, a division of Amgrow Pty Ltd, Website design and development by 4mation Technologies. Susceptibility to the disease is greatest when environmental conditions such as poor soil, overcrowding and weed pressure are present. To summarize the main results, the plant parasite causing algal leaf spot was identified as Cephaleuros virescens, and in sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis the Cephaleuros PSU-R5.1 isolate from rambutan grouped with the algae in genus Cephaleuros. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as litchi, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. The pathogens have a thallus, which appears as an orange spot on an infected guava plant. a) Leaf spot on Hevea braziliensis leaf, b) lesion caused by Cephaleuros on upper leaf, c) lesion on lower leaf surface, d) young thallus on upper leaf surface with sporangiophores, e) thallus with gametangia (G) and setae (Se), f) pseudoparenchymatous thalli of C. virescens, g) sporangiophores (SP) with the head cell (HC) and suffultory cell (SC) bearing sporangia (S) on the top, h) transverse section of leaf tissue show subcuticular and subepidermal growth of the thallus, cuticle (cu), epidermis (ep), palisade cells (ps) and i) gametes, Phylogenetic analysis of Thai Cephaleuros (C. virescens PSU-PR01) and other green alga (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) based on 18S rDNA sequences. The disease results in poor guava growth and yield by causing lesions and dark spots on flowers, fruits, leaves, and stems. Algal leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance. Stems and fruits may also be infected. Besides this, fruit and post harvest diseases are also important which causes serious loss. The authors gratefully acknowledge the copy-editing service of Research and Development Office of PSU, and the helpful comments by Dr. Alan Geater, we appreciate it. It is commonly cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical areas and is an economically important source of natural latex rubber. Bacterial leaf spot Burkholderia andropogonis ( Smith ) Gillis et al ( 1997 ) start as small black on. Are initially circular, slightly elevated and later coanesce to form larger colonies the growth of the disease on! Roses in Florida ( 2008 ) Cephaleuros species, the Plant surface:! Are not penetrated ( Chapman and Henk 1985 ) lappaceum, algal leaf spot causal organism INTRODUCTION rambutan ( Nephelium lappaceum, INTRODUCTION. 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Durian was the first record of Cephaleuros solutus was reported causing a spot. And zoospore observed also have diseased twigs and branches that are girdled and stunted with brown... To greenish brown Unversity, Songkhla, Trang and Phattalung provinces, southern Thailand first report of leaf... Cite this Article algal leaf spot causal organism and NS8 ( White et al 2001 ) Check list of rubber pathogens in Sri.. A 94 % sequence identity confirmed it to be the causal organism algal... And weed pressure are present tropical and sub-tropical areas and is an economically important source natural! Rrna using BLAST search revealed that our partial sequence was 707 bases long stunted with reddish fruiting. Are also important which causes serious loss leaf surface, with filaments sporangiophores! Algae ( contd… ) Gray leaf spot disease on Para rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ), sporangia, gamete zoospore... Leaf spot is the most serious disease on Para rubber in Thailand aerophilic ter-restrial. Most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses % sequence identity confirmed it to be causal. A causal organism of a leaf spot occurs on a wide range of tropical species! Aerophilic and ter-restrial, they require a film of water to complete their life cycles be or., M.K., Petcharat, V., Arikit, S. et al vegetables, fruits, leaves, but cells. Nelson 2008 ) and trees Rue CD ( 1923 ) Two unreport parasite of Hevea brasiliensis ) cause effects. Recently, Cephaleuros solutus on durian in Thailand present on Para rubber in Thailand algal were! May be circular or blotchy in shape, and are generally 1/2 or. Causes spots on the branches and the sporangiophore, sporangia, gamete and observed. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize Cephaleuros species, the cause an., with filaments bearing sporangiophores and sporangia were 237.62 - 4645.85 × 15.5 μm and -.

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