Counter Terrorism Terrorism Research. Often, these threats are so interwoven that policy-makers, unable to separate the two, confront them by implementing similar strategies. In Pakistan, there are three distinct categories of militants: the Afghan-centric Pashtun militants; the Kashmir-centric Punjabi militants; and the transnational terrorists, like al-Qaeda. Efforts to weaken the al Qa'ida-linked terrorist group al Shabaab in Somalia have had some success, but the U.S. campaign there is in … It is thus not rare for governments to implement countermeasures that, without causing significant damages to the insurgents, generate civilian casualties, alienate local communities, and indirectly legitimise the insurgents in the eyes of the population. THE POP CULTURE PACIFIST: Making the World a More Dangerous Place, Rosetta Stone — Language Series [Review & Interview], GUNS ACROSS THE BORDER — Mike Detty [GCT Radio], STUDENT OF THE GUN: VOL.1 CONCEALED CARRY BASICS with Paul Markel, THE ULTIMATE SNIPER by MAJ John L. Plaster USAR (ret.) Global Research, March 13, 2017. Insurgency, Counter-insurgency and Terrorism in Pakistan. But it runs the risk of pushing them into the arms of the broader insurgencies in Mindanao, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Moro National Liberation … About Centre of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism . serious counterinsurgency. (1993) “Terrorism as a Strategy of Insurgency,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. Even after having fought terrorism and insurgencies for more than 150 years, the military and the Capitol still have problems defining the difference between counter-terrorism (CoTer) and counter-insurgency (CoIn). 5, No. PLAY. It concludes that, while al Shabaab was weakened between 2011 and 2016, it could resurge if urgent steps are not taken to address key challenges. Choosing the Right Strategy: (Counter)Insurgency and (Counter)Terrorism as Competing Paradigms, The Influence and Stability of the United Kingdom: The National Security Ramifications of a No Deal Brexit, UK Access to EU Databases: The National Security Ramifications of a No Deal Brexit. Terms in this set (12) Terrorism: premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant target by subnational groups or secret agents, usually intended to influence an audience. Eliminate terrorists wherever possible, yet try to gain the support of the people. [3] United States Department of Defense (2014) Joint Publication 3-26: Counterterrorism, U.S. Government Printing Office, p. I-5. And recall how much trouble the President Obama’s administration wouldn’t even call it the “War on Terror”? Spell. On one level they’re right. Categories News March 2020 Tags Law Enforcement, Security, IED, India, HME, Counter terrorism, Counter Insurgency, Bomb Making Materials, Telangana state. The Islamic global terrorist, on the other hand is focused on simply creating mayhem and fear amongst the populace…and that includes not only in the US, Russia and Europe, but within the Islamic nations, such as Arabia, Afghanistan and Iraq. 5, p. 34-37. for a cohesive summary of the origins and evolution of counterterrorism. © 2021 Consequently, understanding the difference between counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-insurgency (COIN) is a precondition for effectively engaging and disrupting terrorist organisations and insurgency movements, and this understanding is underpinned by the idea that ‘counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency are [neither] mutually exclusive’ nor interchangeable. Retrieved from E-International Relations: https://www.e-ir.info/2010/12/21/what-is-the-difference-between-counter-insurgency-and-counter-terrorism/, p. 4. CT and COIN are neither mutually exclusive nor interchangeable. As previously mentioned, adapting the wrong strategies in such contexts not only inhibits the government’s success, but may also spawn backlashes, inadvertently strengthen the insurgents’ grip over local communities, and protract the conflict. Consequently, strategies that rely on military operations designed to capture and kill insurgents without addressing the root causes of the insurgency are often counterproductive. The long-term presence of security forces at the local level prevented the insurgents from controlling key areas and shifted the population’s allegiance from the insurgents to the security forces. Many of the techniques and tactics, though with technology nowhere as advanced, have been used in terrorism in the past by “guerrilla” movements and revolutionaries, such as the American and French revolutionaries, the Viet Cong, and the Bolsheviks that created many present governments. If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency, counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. Consequently, understanding the difference between counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-insurgency (COIN) is a precondition for effectively engaging and disrupting terrorist organisations and insurgency movements, and this understanding is underpinned by the idea that ‘counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency are [neither] mutually exclusive’ nor interchangeable[2]. Secondly, once insurgents are alienated from the local communities and lack the protection of the greater population, they become highly vulnerable to CT strategies. [7] United States Department of Defense (2014) Joint Publication 3-26: Counterterrorism, U.S. Government Printing Office, p. I-5. Unlike the majority of terrorist organisations, insurgent groups consider it paramount to gain legitimacy from the greater population by championing deeper issues and grievances within society. This was the case in Iraq during the “Surge” of U.S. troops in 2007. And, in understanding the differences constructing and conducting appropriate responses. It was the first time we were required to check carry-on bags as the result of the increase in hijackings by Arab terrorists. Moscow’s failure to understand that insurgency, and not terrorism, was the defining character of the two Chechen Wars led to the implementation of counter-terrorism strategies that turned a contained rebellion into a widespread jihadi insurgency. As Insurgency and terrorism remain major threats to national security and … Fighting a political party that has terrorism wing is a lot easier than fighting a global jihad that has not intention of taking anything, only creating wave of hysteria and fear, often using tactics contrary to the very religion they espouse. This is because insurgents benefit from being deeply interconnected with local communities and, when the government launches large-scale operations, they can rely on the protection from the local population to melt away and ‘go quiet’[9]. [12] Kilcullen, The Accidental Guerrilla, p. 115-185. Gravity. 4, p. 224-238. of counter insurgency, a concept of operations and the coordination of a plan of action by a government at the strategic level. Part of the problem, is that the terrorists depict themselves as revolutionaries, when in fact they are only terrorists. The remaining six chapters cover the operational aspects of the overall campaign; intelligence, the security forces, military operations, personnel and logistic matters, psychological factors and public informa-tion. '1 Only a few weeks later, Gordon Brown himself made a similar argument, emphasizing that the campaign in Afghanistan was being pursued 'not out of choice but from necessity', because … US counter-terrorism abroad: Fighting terrorism or encouraging it? Effectively implementing CoTer and CoIn, takes into the account these differences and doesn’t get sucked into focusing on CoTer when CoIn is more appropriate, and vice versa. Get The New FREE GCT Magazine Newsletter and LEARN THEM ALL! 4. Panel 2 (October 16): Counterinsurgency and Counter-terrorism Counterinsurgency and counterterrorism are two of the most high-profile areas for capacity-building, particularly in the wake of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Terrorism and insurgency are two distinct models of violent conflict. Although terrorism is a long-lasting feature of political violence, counter-terrorism as a stand-alone strategy was developed during the 1970s and gained substantial importance in the post-9/11 era[4][5]. The US has a disastrous record of involvement in ‘counter-insurgency’ efforts in Central America. Theme: Terrorism. But when it comes to confronting alienated individuals determined to spread fear among the population, COIN efforts are generally ineffective. A clear example is given by Russia’s framing of the nationalist rebellion in Chechnya during the 1990s as a terrorist uprising. Unlike the American and French Revolutionary (both insurgents were occupied with home rule), yet very much like the Bolshevik Revolutionary, which saw Russia as only a first step, this terrorist is focused on the whole populace with an objective of turning the world into an Islamic state…much like the past militant Leninist and Stalinist following Marxist rhetoric. Test. This is defined by Kilcullen as ‘a competition with the insurgent for the right and ability to win hearts, minds, and acquiescence of the population’[11]. STUDY. But it was the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks that made counterterrorism a pillar of domestic and foreign policy in the U.S. and beyond. In 2003, the Department of Defense approved the USSOCOM counter-terrorism campaign plan, which includes both direct and indirect actions to achieve the strategic objective of defeating radical Islamic organizations. The School of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism (SCICT) welcomes applications from undergraduate, postgraduate students and M.Phil or Ph.D scholars having research interest in the sphere of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism, by sending mail on scict@rsu.ac.in and you will be informed by school on availability of internship. Flashcards. Learn. In other words, insurgencies are long-term conflicts that the insurgent party wages with the intention of overthrowing the government to take its place. The DoD defines CT as ‘activities and operations taken to neutralize terrorists, their organizations, and networks in order to render them incapable of using violence to instil fear and coerce governments or societies to achieve their goals’[7]. It concludes with a section on civil affairs. If no single definition of terrorism produces a precise, unambiguous description, we can approach the question by eliminating similar activities that are not terrorism, but that appear to overlap. Engagement Options in Sub‐Saharan Africa, funded and coordinated by the Strategic Multilayer Assessment Office (SMA) of the Department of Defense. [14] Pratt, S. (2010, December 21). 36, No. CT and COIN are not interchangeable either. Region: Asia, Middle East & North Africa. After reassessing the nature of the war and the enemy, it is now time to change the campaign plan from a counter-terrorism framework to a global counter-insurgency framework. The Vietcong’s uprising in South Vietnam against the central government in Saigon (1954-1976) and the Taliban’s attempts to overthrow the Afghan Government and obtain its power throughout the last 18 years are famous examples of protracted insurgencies. Terrorism must be used against civilians or other non-combatants. The main difference between CT and COIN is that, while the former focuses on neutralising terrorists and disrupting their networks, the latter is an approach aimed at first marginalising, rather than destroying, the insurgent movement[14]. (2010) “Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency,” Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol. Counterinsurgency vs. Counterterrorism:A Civilian's Viewby Colonel Gary AndersonDownload the full article: Counterinsurgency vs. CounterterrorismEvery twenty years or so, our Army has a furious internal debate over what kind of army it wants to be. Counter-terrorism and Counter-insurgency. As Kilcullen states, ‘terrorism is a component in almost all insurgencies, and insurgent objectives lie behind almost all non state terrorism’[13]. They’re trying to say that by using past techniques they are the same. [6] Kilcullen, D. (2010) Counterinsurgency: Oxford University Press, p. 186. Special Operations Forces (SOFs) efficiently combined counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency tactics, engaging insurgents and neutralising their networks without inflicting large numbers of civilian casualties[12]. To follow the traditional definition of “terrorism”, and therefore create a campaign of “counterterrorism”, brings into the question the difference between a “terrorist” and a “freedom fighter”. Because insurgents rely on their links with the local population for securing their survival and advancing their cause, governments that implement counter-terrorism strategies to engage insurgency movements are unlikely to emerge victorious. By Nauman Sadiq. Posted on February 15, 2020 February 17, 2020 Author CIP Review. [5] See Rinehart, J. Nevertheless, the marriage between CT and COIN is profitable only when the government is facing insurgents that adopt terrorism as one of their strategies. Therefore, they must not be confronted with one-size-fits-all approaches[1]. This is what’s been perplexing the governments for years…and there’s a very good reason this. In these circumstances governments should implement CT strategies that emphasise military and law enforcement techniques. & Merari, A. In order to achieve such unity, the counter-insurgency must be commanded and managed by a single commissioner or military commander. Also, unlike the spreading of Communism that was fueled by terrorist acts committed by insurgents in countries throughout Latin America, Asia and Africa, not to mention the Red Brigades in Japan and Germany, had focused on taking political power. Global Counter Terror (GCT) Magazine | Powered by, Green Beret Pocket Guide to Terrorism Awareness and Personal Security by Brian Morris. Terrorism and Counterinsurgency Burke Chair reports on Terrorism and Counterinsurgency provide up-to-date analyses on the global threat posed by militants, non-state actors, and terrorist groups, and the mix of asymmetric warfare and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. What America needs to do is implement both a counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-insurgency (CS) policy. Or, more importantly why the US government along with many others are having such a problem defining the difference between counterterrorism and counterinsurgency. Terrorist organisations cannot be disrupted through counter-insurgency techniques and insurgencies are extremely resilient to counter-terrorism strategies. [13] Kilcullen, Counterinsurgency, p. 184. Although CT and COIN are not interchangeable, in certain contexts their joint action significantly improves the government’s ability to confront insurgents that implement terrorism as a tactic. bryanna_mojica. The analysis is based on an extensive review of qualitative and quantitative data available on al Shabaab, two trips to East Africa, two trips to U.S. Africa Command, and extensive conversations with regional experts. 4, No. Write. ‘Much as some may think otherwise, counter-insurgency and its cousin counter-terrorism are old businesses with a lot of history.’ ‘His big point is that the US mainly needs counter-insurgency forces and expertise, but instead has ordinary infantry etc.’ [Book Review & Interview], Venezuela and the Future of South America, Searching for Judas: The peril of being in the Gun Business today, Sig Sauer MPX Submachine Gun at Media Day 2014, SSG3000 Suppressed Sig Sauer Media Day 2014, Benelli’s M4 Matches Well With the PDX1 Defender, SCHOOL SHOOTINGS: You Can’t Sterilize the World, ISRAELI SPECIAL FORCES TRAINING: COUNTER-TERROR CARBINE—The Israeli Method [DVD Review/GCT Radio Interview]. As one who remembers traveling on plane during the 1960s and 1970s, I can vividly remember a flight from Hawaii to Singapore in 1974. Networking event in New York, NY by International Crime and Justice MA on Monday, November 18 2019 These activities must be co-ordinated in doctrine and plans to achieve specific objectives. Once these COIN techniques were proven successful in isolating the insurgents, U.S. forces launched the second phase of the “Surge”. What the present major type of terrorist is ignoring is that most of the “terrorist” attacks were directed at the military. The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) was tasked with reviewing the literature relevant to counter‐terrorism and counter‐insurgency in support of the broader project U.S. Counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency, although similar in certain respects, identify divergent assumptions and modalities for dealing with terrorism and insurgency. Facilitate insurgent cooperation against terrorists by addressing substantive political grievances, in … In the French, Vietnamese and American insurrections, attacks were predominantly against the government and then against the local populace loyal to the prior government. The difference between counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency is simple: counter-terrorism focuses more narrowly on combating the tactics and strategy of terrorism and those who employ it, while counter-insurgency is a broader category of responses to political violence carried out by minority groups, both terroristic and otherwise. The latter subsumes the former. Part of the problem, is that the terrorists depict themselves as revolutionaries, when in fact they are only terrorists. In-depth Report: PAKISTAN. According to the US Army/US Marine Counterinsurgency Field Manual: Insurgency is an organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through the use of subversion and armed conflict. Operations and Counterinsurgency Doctrine 358 Timothy L. Thomas 19 The Key Role of Psychological Operations in Countering Terrorism 380 Jerrold M. Post Part IV: Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20 The Contemporary Challenges of Counterterrorism Intelligence 397 Jennifer E. Sims. Conversely, CT strategies adopted in insurgency scenarios alienate the population, creating the perfect breeding ground for radicalisation and political violence, indirectly strengthening the insurgency. linked terrorist group al Shabaab in Somalia, examines what steps have been most successful against the group, and identifies potential recom - mendations. [9] Kilcullen, D (2009) The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One: Oxford University Press, p. 32. Counter-insurgency requires the use of military, political, economic, psychological and organisational action. On one level they’re right. The “Mindanao Model” – using classic counter-insurgency techniques to achieve counter-terror goals – has been directed against the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and has helped force its fighters out of their traditional stronghold on Basilan. The U.S. government has made fighting terrorism a priority since the early 1970s, following the terrorist attacks on the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, and several airline hijackings. Therefore, successful COIN efforts, instead of only seeking to kill insurgents and disrupt their networks, are mainly directed at severing the link between insurgents and local communities (population-centric approaches). What we have now in the new terrorists is a tool used by a new global insurgent—the religious fanatical global insurgent. This study examines the counterterrorism and counterinsurgency campaign against al Shabaab in Somalia. GCT MAG ADJUSTS TO THE WINDS OF CHANGE: Are You Prepared? 2, p. 342. (2013) “Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Russia: Contending Paradigms and Current Perspectives,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol 36, No. Counterinsurgency is a counterterrorist strategy. Distinguishing between terrorism and insurgency is becoming increasingly challenging for policy-makers and military planners. Created by. Insurgencies, as defined by COIN scholar David Kilcullen, are ‘organised, protracted politico-military struggles designed to weaken the control and legitimacy of an established government, occupying power, or other political authority while increasing insurgent control’[8]. Unter Aufstandsbekämpfung oder auch englisch Counterinsurgency (COIN) versteht man verschiedene Taktiken und Strategien zur Bekämpfung von bewaffneten Aufständen. Again, it has to be emphasized that not all violence as part of some agenda is terroristic. The United States Department of Defence (DoD) in 2014 defined terrorism as ‘the unlawful use of violence or threat of violence, often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs, to instil fear and coerce governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are usually political’[3]. However, confusion leads to counterproductive outcomes and, instead of containing and reducing threats, misguided measures have the potential to exacerbate the impact of political violence. COIN strategies are mainly directed at reinforcing the government’s legitimacy and addressing the root causes of the population’s grievances while granting secondary emphasis to capturing and killing insurgents. This new global insurgent, on the other hand, uses the terrorist to create fear and modify the actions of local governments, and the interactions between the world’s governments. Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), which is mainly comprised of Pashtun militants, carries out bombings against Pakistan’s state apparatus. 11, p. 918. [1] Younyoo K., Stephen B. Want to KNOW A SECRET? The definition of terrorism is much more convoluted as terrorism has been used by every insurgency throughout history to topple a government by coercing the ruling government to increase controls of its citizenry, thus creating increased popular disaffection, in an ever-increasing cycle that leads to major uprising by the majority against the ruling government. Remember how it was when President Bush stated that the United States of America and its allies were now in a war on terror? Contemporary terrorist studies knowledge, particularly within an international relations context, touts the idea that states are justified and understandably employ brute force as a sole factor in counter insurgency efforts and thus lack a nuanced, intersectional perspective on the “nature, causes and responses to terrorism” (Jackson, 2007: 245). Insurgency, counter-insurgency and terrorism in Pakistan. The United States Armed Forces use the term foreign internal defense for programs that support other countries in attempts to suppress insurgency, lawlessness, or subversion or to reduce the conditions under which these threats to security may develop. The best definition for terrorism I’ve been able to find is the one by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. [4] Boyle, M. (2010) “Do Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency Go Together?,” International Affairs, Vol. Terrorist organisations cannot be disrupted through COIN techniques and insurgencies are extremely resilient to CT strategies. Policy-makers and military officials often confuse insurgency for terrorism and vice versa because the two phenomena share many commonalities. Firstly, the massive deployment of U.S. and Iraqi soldiers provided security and support to the local communities. Or, more importantly why the US government along with many others are having such a problem defining the difference between counterterrorism and counterinsurgency. Hence, before implementing CT strategies, the government must first win the population’s support. The strategic approach adopted by the U.S. in Iraq can be divided into two phases. So counter-terrorism is any efforts to suppress or prevent terrorism, while the counter-insurgency is efforts to suppress resistance to the established power. Now that we know what insurgency and terrorism are. Russia’s brutal hunt for the alleged “terrorists” in Chechnya caused the death of innocent civilians, alienated local communities and created the perfect breeding ground for radicalisation and protracted violence in the region[10]. Hence, CT emerged as a strategy specifically designed to isolate and disrupt terrorist organisations that, deprived of the population’s support, could be promptly detected and neutralised. The Philippines: Counter-insurgency vs. Counter-terrorism in Mindanao Crisis Group Asia Report N°152, 14 May 2008 Page ii RECOMMENDATIONS To the Philippines Government: 1. In the past, the national insurgent was occupied with creating fear locally. The Centre of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism (CCICT) is conceptualized by Raksha Shakti University to be engaged in Teaching, Training, Research and Extension activities in the sphere of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism. 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